Madonna and child have been reunited.
Thirteen-month-old David Banda arrived at London's Heathrow Airport Tuesday, after leaving Malawi by private jet Monday.
He was escorted to his new home by several police officers and carried by a woman believed to be his nanny, who shielded him from photographers by placing a sweater over his head.
Neither Madonna nor Guy Ritchie was seen at the airport to meet their adopted son's flight.
The singer's longtime publicist, Liz Rosenberg, said David was issued a passport and visa on Monday.
"This interim adoption grants David's new parents temporary custody for 18 months, during which time they will be evaluated by the courts of Malawi per the tribal customs of the country," Rosenberg said in a statement.
The baby's departure from Malawi took place as the Malawi-based Human Rights Consultative Committee, a group of 67 human rights nongovernmental organizations in the southern African country, were preparing to ask the High Court to reconsider granting Madonna and husband Guy Ritchie custody of the child.
Though Malawian law states that nonresidents may not adopt a child without spending at least 18 months "fostering" the child in country, an exception was made for Madonna allowing her to take custody of David. (The singer and Ritchie left Malawi on Friday without the child because his passport was still being processed.)
As a result, human rights organizations have accused officials of granting the Material Mom preferential treatment.
"The laws of Malawi are clear that if one wants to adopt a child one has to stay with the child for at least 18 months for assessment," Justin Dzonzi, HRCC's chairman told People magazine.
The group planned to apply to the High Court as an "interested party" in the adoption, then get a stay of the temporary order allowing Madonna to take custody of David. It was unclear if the baby's departure from Malawi would affect the process.
David's father, Yohane Banda, was indignant about the potential challenges to his son's adoption.
"As David's father, I have no problem [with the adoption], so what is their concern? Are they jealous or what? What I want is a good life, a good education for my child," Banda told People.
Madonna has pledged $3 million through her Raising Malawi charity to help the impoverished country's 900,000 orphans, many who lost their families to AIDS.